There may be an increased risk of minor birth defects in children whose mothers are exposed to progestins during the first trimester of pregnancy. The possible risk to the male baby is hypospadias, a condition in which the opening of the penis is on the underside rather than the tip of the penis. This condition occurs naturally in approximately 5 to 8 per 1,000 male births. The risk may be increased with exposure to MPA tablets. Enlargement of the clitoris and fusion of the labia may occur in female babies. However, a clear association between hypospadias, clitoral enlargement and labial fusion with use of MPA tablets has not been established.
The number of past-year heroin users in the United States nearly doubled between 2005 and 2012, from 380,000 to 670,000 (Fig. 4) .  Heroin abuse, like prescription opioid abuse, is dangerous both because of the drug’s addictiveness and because of the high risk for overdosing. In the case of heroin, this danger is compounded by the lack of control over the purity of the drug injected and its possible contamination with other drugs (such as fentanyl, a very potent prescription opioid that is also abused by itself).  All of these factors increase the risk for overdosing, since the user can never be sure of the amount of the active drug (or drugs) being taken. In 2010, there were 2,789 fatal heroin overdoses, approximately a 50 percent increase over the relatively constant level seen during the early 2000s.  What was once almost exclusively an urban problem is spreading to small towns and suburbs. In addition, the abuse of an opioid like heroin, which is typically injected intravenously, is also linked to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis (especially Hepatitis C), sexually-transmitted infections, and other blood-borne diseases, mostly through the sharing of contaminated drug paraphernalia but also through the risky sexual behavior that drug abuse may engender.