Recombinant growth hormone is approved for a variety of conditions that cause short stature, including Turner syndrome, chronic renal failure, Prader-Willi syndrome, small for gestational age, Noonan syndrome, short stature homeobox-containing gene deficiency, and idiopathic short stature. It is administered through daily injections over several years. The injections are generally well tolerated, but rare adverse reactions have been reported. For children with idiopathic short stature, four years of treatment results in an increased height of cm ( in) and costs between $100,000 and $120,000. 25 , 26
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Drugs can be added and removed from this list by WADA annually, although not all of the banned substances are explicitly named. Caroline Hatton, PhD , a sports anti-doping science consultant, told in a Mar. 12, 2010 email that "A key concept in prohibited lists is that they avoid being finite. Instead of listing all banned drugs one by one, they list entire drug classes and name drugs merely as examples. This is to keep users who took designer drugs from claiming that they didn't break the rules because the drugs they took weren't listed."